Scoliosis, a condition characterized by an abnormal sideways curvature of the spine, can stem from various factors, both genetic and environmental. Idiopathic scoliosis, which comprises approximately 80% of cases, manifests without a known cause, often emerging during the growth spurt just before puberty. Although the precise trigger remains elusive, genetic predisposition is thought to play a significant role, with certain genes potentially contributing to the development of spinal abnormalities.

Congenital scoliosis arises from vertebral malformations present at birth, disrupting the normal growth and alignment of the spine. These abnormalities can result from genetic mutations or intrauterine factors affecting fetal development, such as inadequate blood supply to the developing spine. Neuromuscular conditions like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spinal muscular atrophy can also lead to scoliosis, as muscle weakness or imbalance affects spinal stability and alignment.

Additionally, degenerative changes in the spine due to aging, injury, or conditions like osteoporosis can contribute to the development of scoliosis later in life. Traumatic injuries to the spine, though less common, can also result in scoliotic curvature as the body attempts to compensate for damage.

Other potential causes include spinal tumors or infections, which can disrupt the normal structure and function of the spine. While the exact cause of scoliosis may vary from case to case, early detection and intervention are crucial for managing the condition effectively and minimizing its impact on spinal health and overall well-being.